The biomass furnace or boilers are those that use natural fuels from renewable sources for their operation. The wood pellets from forest residues or surplus industries, olive pits, nut shells, wood etc. are natural energy sources that can be used in any biomass furnace. The bio-fuel which is used to feed the biomass furnace is more economical than conventional fuels (diesel, propane, etc …). Besides, the price of bio fuel also remains more stable over time because of which bio mass furnaces are increasingly used for generating heat as part of any home heating system.
The high calorific value per unit weight (reaching the 4,200 kcal / kg) makes biodiesel a form of renewable energy which is profitable and contributes to the efforts of preserving the environment and the sources of energy on this planet. Moreover, its characterization as a renewable energy source makes the authorities subsidize its use. Compared with fossil fuels, one kilogram of pellets has half the calorific value than a liter of diesel. In other words, we need two kilos of pellet or olive stones to produce the same energy as one liter of diesel.
Types of Biomass Furnace
Pellet – Only substances such as pellets or olive pits, which are absorbed into the boiler by means of suction or screw, can be used in these furnaces. They are most commonly used for medium power generation (domestic use).
Poli-combustible – They require crushed substances for combustion. They are larger in size and are mostly used for industrial purposes.
Wood stoves – They use wood logs for combustion and the wood furnace are usually used at home (domestic use).
Operation of Biomass Furnace
A biomass furnace or biomass boiler functions in a manner similar to a gas boiler. The burner burns fuel pellet that is provided, generating a horizontal flame that enters the boiler, as is common in diesel systems. The heat generated during this combustion (in this case of natural fuel) is transmitted to the attached water circuit in the heat exchanger incorporated in the boiler. The hot water generated is used for heating pools, water for domestic use etc. Heating can be done by any conventional water systems, for example, under floor heating, radiators or fan convectors.
This biomass combustion need a container or silo for storage of biofuel located near the boiler. From the same, a screw feeder or suction, leads to the boiler, where combustion takes place. The pellet type fuel must be stored at an angle of about 45 degree for proper insertion into the boiler.
Burning biomass produces some ash, which is usually collected automatically in an ashtray, which needs to be emptied four times a year. To optimize the operation of the biomass furnace, we can install a battery, storing heat in a manner similar to a solar energy system.
Advantages of Installing a Biomass Furnace
Clean energy: dies not emit CO2
Cheap energy: the price of biomass does not depend on international markets such as fossil fuels, besides being much lower.
Safe energy: the biomass, unlike the gas can not explode.